Hello everyone.

This week's Links list is on Medieval Archery. It is NOT a repeat of last
year's Medieval Archery Links list. Many of those links are no longer with
us. Instead I started my search from scratch, and due to a recent request
for images, included a few links with historical images at those sites.

I hope that, now that archery season is gearing up, you'll all find
something useful to use in the list. As always, please feel free to pass
this list along wherever it will find interest.

Cheers

Aoife, dusting off her bow

Medieval Archery Homepage
http://www.ping.be/olivier_picard/
(Site Excerpt) This site is dedicated to traditional Bow shooting.
A first part is focused on medieval Archery; a second part on the history of
Archery throughout the world; a third part concerns various information
about Archery, such as types of games, reviews books and films, an
English/French/German glossary, calendar of our activities, links, etc ...

SCA Archery Homepage
http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/archery.html
Lists interkingdom archery choots, archery websites, archery lists, etc....

Interkingdom Combat Archery Competitions
http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/ikcac_rules.html

On Target Online!
The official
An Tir Royal Archer
Web site magazine
http://www.dellarco.com/ontarget/framesets/home_frameset.html

Making Flemish Bowstrings
http://www2.pcom.net/jthutten/jth/doc/flemish.htm
(Site Excerpt) General Instructions for Crafting the String
Prepare and Cut Bundles
Using the table and formula above, prepare and cut the bundles of B50 to the
appropriate length. (It is assumed you are making a traditional two-color
Flemish string. Keep the strands of the same color in their own "bundle".)

Stephan's Florilegium--Archery
http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/rialto/idxarchery.html

Regia Anglorum Anglo-Saxon Archery
http://www.regia.org/saxarch.htm
(Site Excerpt) One of the most common arguments against bows is 'If they
were at all common why have we never found many?'. At first this seems a
valid argument until you consider that from the period of the longbow's
greatness ( c.1250 - 1500 AD ) not one bowstave 1, of the tens of thousands
known to have been produced, has survived. Indeed, until the discovery of
the Mary Rose, we had no medieval bows at all. It is therefore quite
surprising to consider that from the first millennium somewhere in the
region of 40 - 50 bowstaves have survived with traces of many others having
been found. As with most weapons finds, most of these come from pagan grave
finds, but they can give us a very good idea of the type of bow in use
shortly before, and probably during, our period.

THE PHYSICS OF
MEDIEVAL ARCHERY
http://www.stortford-archers.org.uk/medieval.htm
(Site Excerpt) Don't let the word 'physics' put you off - read the article
for an insight into how modern science can help us understand the history of
the weapon we now use for sport (and ignore the formulae if you must!) It is
generally believed that the main factor responsible for the English victory
at the battle the Agincourt in 1415 was the longbow. Gareth Rees describes
from a physicist's point of view why we believe this simple weapon was so
devastatingly effective.

The Plantagenet Medieval Archery and Combat Society
http://www.the-plantagenets.freeserve.co.uk/

Traditional and Medieval Archery Links
http://margo.student.utwente.nl/sagi/arlinks/links/trad.html

Traditional & Medieval Archery Association at the University of Missouri
http://students.missouri.edu/~archery/
(Site Excerpt) Our purpose is to promote local research of historic archery
activities & practices, and to provide members and guests the opportunity to
engage in archery activities, both historic & modern.

Yahoogroups Medieval Archery
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Medieval_archery/

Medieval Archery on Ebay
http://search.ebay.com/search/search.dll?query=medieval+archery&newu=1
Three items found: Three replicas: A Quiver with arrows, a cross bow, and a
recurve.

3 Rivers Archery Traditional Bows and Arrows
http://www.3riversarchery.com/
A retailer

The Archery Center: The specialists in field, traditional, and re-enactment
archery.
http://www.archery-centre.co.uk/
Another retailer

Wolfshead Bowmen Medieval Archery Group
http://www.wolfshead-bowmen.com/
(Site Excerpt) Based in the "1066 Country", our headquarters can be found at
Michelham Priory,near Eastbourne, East Sussex,where meetings and practice
shootings are held on the first and third day of each month, where
applications for new membership are welcome.
Wolfshead Bowmen have appeared, as extras, in several film and television
productions.
For further information contact the club secretary here:
Welcome to the official site for Wolfshead-Bowmen.
The premier medieval archery group.

Eric's Archery Page
The bowyer's home on the web
http://www.geocities.com/ewmyers/bowyers/
(Site Excerpt) The focus of this site is primitive/traditional bow making
and archery.

Sticks and Stones Primitive Archery
http://www.stickstone.com/

Crossbow Books
http://hppublish.com/linkb/crossbow.htm

Crossbows FAQ
http://asyn.com/sca/archery/crossbow.html

Make Your Own Crossbow
http://home.austin.rr.com/dmiller/crossbow/crossbow.html

Medieval Longbow at AEMMA
http://www.aemma.org/training/archery/archeryTraining.htm
(Site Excerpt) AEMMA through a partnership with the Canadian Association of
Ancient and Medieval Archery and the Royal Ontario Museum continue the
research and development in the resurrection and reconstruction of medieval
martial arts now extends to the realm of medieval longbow. The longbow is
constructed in the traditional manner of a minimum of 5' 6", of a historical
authentic "D" cross-section in which the shooting style is by an instinctive
method not incorporating artificial aids such as scopes, arrow rests or
sites.

SCA Juried Merchants List: Archery
http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/merchants/index.archery.html

Feudal Archers
http://www.btinternet.com/~feudal.archers/index.html
(Site Excerpt) Feudal Archers was formed in February 1998 by an experienced
group of re-enactors, as a living history group based on the period 1135 to
1216, spanning the reigns of four kings--Stephen, Henry II, Richard I and
John.Although the accent is on archery and our members are all skilled with
the bow, Feudal Archers aims to present a full picture of the times with an
authentic campsite, wood fire, cookery, crafts and, at suitable locations, a
working replica ballista (siege engine).

The Bow Magazine online
http://www.bownet.com/

Silver Flower Company of Archers
http://www.silverflower.org/
(Site Excerpt) Though "Compagnia del Fiore d'Argento" (Silver Flower Archers
Company) is only of recent constitution, its members - archers and
swordsmans - are active (individually or through other associations) already
from many years in the fields of re-enacting.

Longbow Archery 'unplugged'
http://au.geocities.com/longbows2002/
(Site Excerpt) Good things about these longbows:
Single piece of timber, genuine self bow.
The bow bends through it's entire length.
You can fee the limbs move in your hand.
No "handle".  (detachable lace up leather grip)
No arrow shelf. (with the leather grip)
Tested by shooting 500 arrows.
Horn limb tips can be added - but you don't need them. The timber is "as
hard as the hobbs of hell".
They're tough. You could, if you wanted to, throw this bow as far as you can
and pick it up and shoot it ...... without having to readjust anything.
                "Not so good" things.
No components to blame for a bad shot.
If you have one you will be mobbed by people saying, "Wow, that's
beautiful".
You might miss out on conversation because a White Fox longbow shoots so
quiet others might forget you are shooting next to them .......
....... except when you hammer arrows into the gold and other archers will
envy you for using a longbow style from 600 years ago.

Mary Rose Ship Find: Archery and Bows
http://www.maryrose.org/lcity/gunner/archery1.htm
(Site Excerpt) The longbow was the English weapon. Most other countries were
changing to using guns, but the English loved the longbow. Boys started
training to use the bow at seven years old. They weren't allowed to play
football, they had to practice their archery!

Agincourt
http://www.geocities.com/beckster05/Agincourt/AgMain.html
A paper on the Battle of Agincourt, a battle which utilized considerable
numbers of archers to claim victory.

Medieval Archery and Crafts webring
http://archeryinfo.info/aaA.html

Bibliography for The Hunt (medieval hunting sources)
http://www.uidaho.edu/student_orgs/arthurian_legend/hunt/biblio.html

Archery Terms
(Archery A to Z)
http://www.centenaryarchers.gil.com.au/archery_terms.htm
(Site Excerpt) Actual Draw Weight
The measured or calculated draw weight of an Archer.
eg. a marked bow of 30 lbs. at 28" draw when used by a person having a 27"
draw length will have an actual draw weight of 28lbs.
(a 1" difference in draw length will make approx. 2 lbs. difference in draw
weight.)
Aim
To superimpose a sight pin on the centre of a target or, when not using a
sight, the placement of the tip of the arrow on a particular point for a
given distance.
Anchor
A combination of points to which the bowstring and/or index finger of the
drawing hand are drawn to on the face and neck.

Primitive Archer Magazine
http://www.primitivearcher.com/index.shtml

Precision Arrow Matching
by Sir Jon Fitz-Rauf, R.C.A.,R.C.Y
http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/articles/arrow_matching.html
(Site Excerpt) If you have a set of properly matched arrows you can greatly
improve your archery scores. Most archers think that if they buy a set of
matched wood arrows from a supplier that they are fully matched. However the
arrows are only matched in weight (within five grains), diameter (all five
sixteenths or eleven thirty seconds, etc.) and spline (within five
pounds-twenty five to thirty or thirty to thirty five, etc). So you see that
they are not matched exactly.

The Medieval English Longbow
by Robert E. Kaiser, M.A.
http://www.student.utwente.nl/~sagi/artikel/longbow/longbow.html
(Site Excerpt) From the thirteenth until the sixteenth century, the national
weapon of the English army was the longbow. It was this weapon which
conquered Wales and Scotland, gave the English their victories in the
Hundred Years War, and permitted England to replace France as the foremost
military power in Medieval Europe. The longbow was the machine gun of the
Middle Ages: accurate, deadly, possessed of a long-range and rapid rate of
fire, the flight of its missilies was liken to a storm.

Some Speculations on the Nature of Longbowstrings
by Philip D. Hartley
http://www.student.utwente.nl/~sagi/artikel/longbowstring/string.html
(Site Excerpt) So much new information is now at hand concerning the
longbow - that remarkable weapon which is English so much a part of English
history -- that the whole study would seem to have reached a new level of
understanding. Even so, as often proves to be the case in matters of history
and archaeology, answers to long-standing questions bring further questions
in their train, and the exact nature of the longbowstring of the early and
mid-XIVth century is just such a case.

Ten Basic Steps in Archery
http://www.student.utwente.nl/~sagi/artikel/steps/
(Site Excerpt) The following sequence of figures shows the basic steps of
shot execution. Although it is depicted as a sequence of separate events,
you should execute these steps in one single smooth motion.
Also keep in mind that these are Basic steps, individual adjustments are
possible, but these are usually given by the instructor/trainer.

Magyar Traditional Archery
http://www.atarn.org/magyar/magyar_link.htm
includes
A BRIEF HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF HUNGARIAN ARCHERY, PART I
by Chris Szabó
http://www.atarn.org/magyar/magyar_1.htm
Hungarian Archery - Revival of a long lost tradition
© Csikos Balint
http://www.atarn.org/magyar/magyar_2/balint.htm
Reconstruction of the Niya Bow
Stephen Selby
http://www.atarn.org/magyar/niya.htm
etc...

Archery Games on the 'net.
http://www.searchamateur.com/corkboard/Archery.html
Includes links to archery clubs around the world.

Medieval Bookstore's The Medieval Archer
http://www.medievalbookstore.com/medieval_archer.htm
(Site Excerpt) This is a classic on the subject, being first published in
1986, and having been reprinted several times since then.  The author starts
with a chapter on attitudes towards archers in the middle ages and then
proceeds chronologically from a few Anglo-Saxon references on through the
centuries.

Les Accesoires
http://www.culture.fr/culture/medieval/francais/vqcost2.htm
This page is entirely in French but shows an archer detail (my french isn't
good enough to tell you what the source is).

Book Reviews: The Medieval Archer
http://uk.geocities.com/the_isles/flamewar/armour9.htm
(Site Excerpt) This book traces the history of the archer in the medieval
period from the Norman conquest to the wars of the Roses. It opens with a
definition of the different kinds of bows in use and challenges the usual
assumption that the "longbow" was a new and devastation weapon used only by
the English armies from the late thirteenth century onwards. The book
continues with a chapter on twelfth century battle tactics, (something quite
rare in historical texts) following on to the Battle of Agincourt.

Malter Galleries
www.maltergalleries.com/041500auctioncat1.html
This site retails medieval and historical coins. One of the images is of a
coin with an archer depicted with bow and quiver---I found it by doing an
image search using the search term "medival archery." I'm not sure how to
point out the exact image, so if you don't want to search through the
lengthy page but want to see the image, email me directly and I'll forward
the photo of the coin to you as an attachment.

Horace Mann's Medieval War, Warfare, Weapons, Armor, and Castles webpage
http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/War/War.html
I include this webpage for the simple reason that there is a medieval
illustration included in the article of a Turkish Archer shooting in
mid-gallop.

The Medieval Welsh Archer (an article on Welsh Costume)
http://www.data-wales.co.uk/archer.htm
(Site Excerpt) The accompanying Welsh archer (graphic omitted from Links
list) is to be found in a 13th. century manuscript . He wears a simple tunic
with a cloak in thin material over his shoulders and appears to have removed
a shoe to aid his grip on the greensward. One must assume that his strange
hairstyle and miniature bow illustrate the limitations of the artist!

Robin Hood Society
http://www.robinhood.ltd.uk/index.asp
(Site Excerpt) Historians and researchers have a range of views but
generally believe that
Robin Hood was alive around the thirteenth century.
The earliest reference to Robin Hood is in William Langland's poem
"The vision of William concerning Piers Plowman" which was written in 1377.
The poem says: "I do not know my paternoster perfectly as the priest sings
it.
But I know the rhymes of Robin Hood and Randolph, earl of Chester".

Khazaria.com
http://www.khazaria.com/
Farther dwon the page is a link for the Khazaria Image Gallery, and the
sample image is of an archer.

Puck Robin
http://www.geocities.com/puckrobin/rh/
This Robinhood website has a Robin Hood Screensaver, A Robinhood Picture
Gallery, and lots of Robin research. Some of the images are historical.

CONSTRUCTION OF A MEDIEVAL ARROW, & Other Considerations. . .
Prepared by HL Peregrine Elric of Courtenay, AIR, CTC, CGP, CSH
http://victorian.fortunecity.com/manet/394/page23d.htm
(Site Excerpt) Many changes came about between 600 and 1600 A.D., but arrow
use and construction remained relatively constant well into the twentieth
century. Spears, archery, slings, and catapults were the primary weapons
available that reached beyond hand to hand combat in the literal sense - but
for this treatise we will explore only the western European and English
arrows of our later period. I will address the following:  Woods used,
length, fletching materials and how they were applied, construction and use
of points, and nocks. By no means complete, I hope that this will give you
enough information to be able to construct an arrow accurately
representative of the period of our study.

Medieval Arrowheads
http://thunder.prohosting.com/~guarana/saa/articles/longbow/heads.html
(Site Excerpt) From bottom to top:
>From Kindrochit Castle, Aberdeenshire; from the site of Flodden; from
Craigmillar Castle, near Edinburgh; from Hunthills, Roxburghshire;
unprovenanced.
National Museum of Antiquities, Scotland.