Greetings! Due to a  freak snowstorm---snowday from school----and the fact
that my kids are all still asleep (so I can use the computer uninterrupted),
here is a bonus Links list. In wishful thinking, as the snow flies outside,
I've included all sorts of outdoor and some indoor games that are somewhat
related. This list is perfect for those planning amusements at events.
There's information on: Bocce, Quoits (a horse shoe like game), Croquet,
Tennis, Battledore/Shuttlecock, Bowling (Ninepins, etc.), Shove-penny,
skittles, and a couple bonus curiosity games.

These are perfect games to break the ice at an event, and work very well
with children's (and adults :) activities. If your group owned a set of
playing equipment, you'd just have to make an announcement, present the
equipment and rules, and let the good times roll! Why not have an active
games tournament, form teams or a league to play against other groups?

I hope you enjoy this list in the spirit it was offered. Please feel free to
pass this list along to whomever will find it interesting, and use it to
update your own website links lists.

Cheers

Aoife


Bocce
http://home.netcom.com/~mifisher/bocce.html
A long list of links to the game. Note that some of the links are dead, but
many are useful.

Bocce History
http://www.bocce.org/history.html
(Site excerpt) The early Romans were among the first to play a game
resembling what we know as bocce today. In early times they used coconuts
brought back from Africa and later used hard olive wood to carve out bocce
balls. Beginning with Emperor Augustus, bocce became the sport of statesman
and rulers. From the early Greek physician Ipocrates to the great Italian
Renaissance man Galileo, the early participants of bocce have noted that the
game's athleticism and spirit of competition rejuvenates the body.

The History of Bocce, an Ancient Game
http://www.sites2c.com/bocce/history.html
(Site Excerpt) Throughout the centuries, the game enjoyed rapid growth as
one of Europe's most popular pastimes, so much so that at one point in
history several governments began to regulate its usage. Why? Because it was
found that the popularity of the game interfered at times with the security
of the state. In other words, the public at large was more interested in
playing bocce than in defending their sovereignty! Rulers were moved to
action. While Kings Carlos IV and V prohibited the playing of bocce (citing
national security), several medical docents from the University of
Montpellier, France, did their part by discrediting the claim that playing
bocce had great therapeutic effect in curing rheumatism.

History of Bowling
http://www.hickoksports.com/history/bowling.shtml
(Site Excerpt) Early History
Rolling a ball to knock down targets has been the object of a number of
games, at various times and in various parts of the world. The implements
for such a game have been found in an Egyptian tomb that's more than 7,000
years old, and a sort of bowling has been popular among Polynesian Islanders
for at least several centuries.

Historyof Bowling, NJ Bowling Association
http://www.bowl-nj.com/history.htm
(Site Excerpt) The Italian version of bowling, bocce, which is still played
today, is somewhat similar to lawn bowling--an English game originating over
800 years ago. The English also played other games which can be considered
variations of bowling--such as half-bowls, skittles, and nine pins.The form
of bowling we play today, bowling at pins, was first mentioned in a book
about the city of London, England, written over 800 years ago. In those
days, bowling was strictly an outdoor game. The first indoor bowling took
place in London as far back as 1455. It was a popular game reserved mainly
for the nobility. In Germany, the name of the game was kegling--and the
participants were known as "keglers".

History of Bowling
Just Where in the Heck Did Bowling Come From?
Mark Miller
http://www.icubed.com/users/allereb/faq2.html
(Site Excerpt) Bowling was recorded in England as early as the 1100s. In the
Netherlands people took up a related game, and it was the Dutch who
introduced the sport to America in the 1600s -- it was called Dutch pins. In
what is now New York City, Dutch residents bowled in a section of the city
still known as "Bowling Green."

The Bowling Museum
http://www.bowlingmuseum.com/history.html
(Site Excerpt) There is substantial evidence that a form of bowling was in
vogue in England in 1366, when King Edward III allegedly outlawed it to keep
his troops focused on archery practice. And it is almost certain that
bowling was popular during the reign of Henry VIII.

The history and rules of lawn bowling
http://or.essortment.com/lawnbowlinghis_rbpl.htm
(Site excerpt) Historians suggest the game made its way across Europe with
Julius Caesar's centurions. At that time, and still today among Italians,
the game was known as "bocce". By the 13th Century, "bowls", was entrenched
in the British Isles. At the turn of the century, 1299 AD, the Southhampton
Old Bowling Green Club was organized in England. The club remains active
today, the oldest of record in the world. Global politics threatened the
game for a time. In the 14th Century, it was banned for commoners in France
and England because archery, essential for defense, was losing popularity.
The Scottish were having none of it. In Scotland the game continued
uninterrupted, a favorite among even such legendary notables as Sir Walter
Scott and Robert Burns. In Glasgow today 200 public bowling greens are in
operation, including some enclosed greens for winter play.

The Online Guide to Traditional Games:
History of Skittles and Ninepins
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Skittles.htm
(Site Excerpt) Skittles or Nine Pins, the forerunner of 10 pin bowling, has
long been played in the Inns of England. In general, players take turns to
throw wooden balls down a lane at the end of which are several wooden
skittles in an attempt to knock them all over.  There are a number of
skittle games across England and there have been many more in the past.  In
Germany, in the 3rd or 4th century monks played a game with a kegel which
was a club carried for self defence.  In the game, the kegel represented a
sin or temptation and the monks would throw stones at it until they knocked
it over.  The modern German term for skittles is Kegelen.

Table Skittles - History and Useful Information
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Table-Skittles.htm
(Site Excerpt) Hood Skittles is a miniaturised version of Old English
Skittles (please see the Alley Skittles page for more information on this
venerable game) in which cheeses are thrown at pins on a table about 8 feet
away.  It is extremely popular Northamptonshire and well known in
Leicestershire, Bedfordshire and surrounding counties.

The Game of London Skittles (Old English Skittles)
http://users.iclway.co.uk/robinson/skittles/
(Site Excerpt) The traditional pub game of London Skittles is played with
nine pins. Unlike other forms of alley skittles it is played not with a ball
but a cheese, which is thrown (not rolled) at the pins. The game, also known
as Old English Skittles, is played at two venues in London. At the
Freemasons Arms in Hampstead, the skittle alley is tucked away in the pub
cellar. With the periodic thud of lignum vitae on hornbeam emanating from
below, tourists stumble upon it as often as the locals.

Bowls History
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Bowls.htm
(Site Excerpt) King Henry VIII was also a lawn bowler.  However, he banned
the game for those who were not wealthy or "well to do" because "Bowyers,
Fletchers, Stringers and Arrowhead makers" were spending more time at
recreational events such as bowls instead of practising their trade.  Henry
VIII requested that anybody who wished to keep a green pay a fee of 100
pounds.  However, the green could only be used for private play and he
forbade anyone to "play at any bowle or bowles in open space out of his own
garden or orchard".

Croquet and cousins
Origins and Ground Billiards
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Croquet.htm
(Site Excerpt) Mallet and ball games are thought to have been first played
in England and Europe during the middle ages. Games would normally involve
only one ball which would be struck through very wide hoops. A Croquet-like
game is believed to have been played by thirteenth century French peasants
who used crudely fashioned mallets to whack wooden balls balls through hoops
made of willow branches. A variety of equipment has been found indicating
that, as was typical, there were no standards and a variety of rules and
types of game were in existence for several centuries. One type of game
which this author calls Ground Billiards' featured a hoop and a stick, a
point being scored for each time your ball was first through the hoop and
onto hit the stick. At some point in the 15th century someone chose to
invent an indoor variation of this played on a table which led to Billiards
and that whole family of games.

Quoits History
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Quoits.htm
(Site Excerpt) Quoits has is related to another early pub game, the throwing
of horseshoes at a pin in the ground.  Some theories have it that Quoits
developed from Horseshoe pitching as a formalised version of the sport.
Horseshoe pitching is still played today, notably in certain regions of the
USA, the rules being similar to those of the Northern Quoits game outlined
below.   The theory espoused by Peter Brown, President of the National
Quoits Association is just the opposite.  A quoit in ancient times was
synonymous with a discus, and so he thinks that Quoits and discus are one
and the same thing and that Quoits was therefore one of the sports played at
the first Greek Olympiad.  He also suggests that the Greeks passed on
Quoits, a weapon of war, to the Romans who also brought the game to Britain
and that the origins may go back even further to the Minoan empire
c.2000B.C. where the boy king of Knossos apparently used the discus/quoit to
cull escaping slaves.  Horseshoe pitching in this case came about as a
poor-man's version of Quoits using left-over horseshoes instead of the real
thing.

The Ancient Game of Quoits
http://www.lindahome.freeuk.com/Quoits1/introduction.html#The%20Game%20of%20
Quoits%20as%20I%20Know%20It (Beware wrapped links, where the end of the URL
is dropped off the hotlink. Copy-paste address to the browser window if
you're having trouble with the link)
(Site Excerpt) The Tradition of the "Sport of Quoits" is ancient and very
absorbing.  It is on record that historians have recorded that it was one of
the five games played at the Pentathlon Meetings held in Greece over 2,000
years ago.  This booklet, without any pretence of being complete, endeavours
to give records of the sport as we best know from information received, and
press cuttings.

Ringing the Bull
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Ringing-The-Bull.htm
(Site Excerpt) This is an indoor game the aim of which is to swing a metal
ring which is dangled from the ceiling on a rope, onto a metal hook on the
wall. Originally, the hook was a bull's horn. Quite often the hook is
embedded in the nose of the head of a bull on the wall.   Other variants
exist featuring other animals such as stags and pigs.  The game is one of
the oldest in the country; legend has it that it was brought back by
Crusaders from Jerusalem.

Toad in the Hole (Pitch Penny)
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Pitching-Discs.htm
(Site Excerpt) There are a whole variety of games which simply involve the
throwing of coins or discs at walls or at holes in a bench, chair, wall or
box.  The most well know example in England comes from Norfolk and Essex and
is called Pitch Penny, Penny Seat, Penny Slot, Tossing the Penny or Penny in
the Hole.  Essentially pennies are thrown across the room and into a hole
carved in the seat of a high-backed settle or wooden bench.

Batledore and Shuttlecock
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Battledore-Shuttlecock.htm
(Site Excerpt) Battledore and shuttlecock is a game which probably developed
in Ancient Greece around 2000 years ago. From there is apparently spread
East to China, Japan, India and Siam. Peasants played it in medieval England
and by the late 16th century, it had become a popular children's game. In
the 17th century, Battledore or Jeu de Volant was an upper class pastime in
many European countries. Battledore and Shuttlecock was simply two people
hitting a shuttlecock backwards and forwards with a simple bat as many times
as they could without allowing it to hit the ground. In 1830, the record for
the number of hits was made by the Somerset family and was apparently 2117
hits.

Tennis
http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Tennis.htm
(Site Excerpt) There is an Egyptian town on the Nile called Tinnis (in
Arabic) and some speculate that this is the origin of the name 'Tennis'.
Another string to this theory's bow is that the term 'racquet' is thought to
derive from the Arabic word 'rahat' which means 'the palm of the hand'.
However, the first game which was definitely like Tennis was played in
France and the alternative philological theory is that 'Tennis' comes from
the French 'Tenez' ('Take it' or 'Play'). Legend has it that the game was
given to the French Royal Court in the 10th century by a wandering minstrel
but, regardless, by the 11th century early Tennis was being played in French
monasteries for sure. The monks usually stretched a rope across the
cloistered central quadrangles in the monastery or sometimes played
immediately adjacent to a castle and the court of the game of Royal Tennis
is clearly synonymous with these beginnings.....By the 14th century, Tennis
had found its way to England where both Henry VII and Henry VIII apparently
became keen players and instigated the building of courts up and down the
country. Apparently Henry VIII invented the 'service' - his servants used to
throw the ball up in the air for him because he was too fat to do it
himself.