Date: Wed, 12 Mar 2003 13:08:40 -0500
Links: Magyars and Medieval Hungary

Greetings everyone. This week's topic was requested by my husband (there
have to be SOME benefits to being my spouse, after all :). The subject under
the microscope is Medieval Hungary and the MEDIEVAL Magyars (What I'd call
native Hungarians in fact call themselves Magyars to this day, which made
searching for information a little tricky).

As always feel free to pass this information along to whomever will be
interested, and feel free to update your own WebPages with these links.

Yours in service,


Hungarian National Museum Exhibitions (English version)
The museum site has some wonderful material appealing to: Fiber arts persons
(a coronation mantle dating from King Stephen and Queen Gisella in l031);
armorers (I was unable to get to the atmor pictured in the exhibits
menu--got a "pip-makers" link instead, but I live in hopes that it is
possible); Stoneworkers (referred to as lapidary on site); Archive of the
Museum has links (someonly in Hungarian) to Prehistoric Gold Finds (looking
very viko-celtic to this untrained eye), and an article and photos from an
Avar Gold Hoard--thankfully in English.

A Hungarian Language Course
(Site Excerpt) Magyar (pronounced /Mawdyar/), as the Hungarians call their
language, is spoken by the approximately 10.3 million inhabitants of
Hungary, as well as another 4 million people in neighboring countries and a
million others scattered around the world. It belongs to the Finno-Ugric
language family, which includes Finnish and Estonian, but its closest
relatives are several obscure languages spoken in Siberia. Hungarian is not
at all related to the Indo-European languages which surround it, and is very
different both in vocabulary and in grammar. Hungarian is an agglutinative
language, meaning that it relies heavily on suffixes and prefixes. The
grammar is seemingly complex, yet there is no gender, a feature that most
English speakers grapple with when learning other European languages.
Hungarian does use the Roman alphabet however, and after learning a few
simple rules one can easily read Hungarian. Pronunciation is also very easy,
especially compared to other neighbouring languages like Czech, German, and

Hungarian Lessons / Magyar leck?k (with sound guides)
(Site Excerpt) Hungarian is spoken by only 15 million people worldwide. It
is hard to learn magyar outside of Hungary, since it is almost impossible to
find local source, classes or tutors to help. This website offers some
lessons for those who really want to learn Hungarian. You also find a
growing collection of sound files, self-quizzes, tests and puzzles here to
support these lessons.

Hungarian Agar Dogs (a medieval sighthound breed)
(Site Excerpt) The present day Hungary's inhabitants are mostly
descendants of the Magyar's. These are the people who invaded and settled
into Hungary in the 9th century. The Magyar people brought their dogs with
them when settling. These dogs are thought to resemble the Sloughi and other
eastern greyhound types.

Coruinus Library Hungarian History
(Site Excerpt) Welcome to our Corvinus Library. Here you will find some
books on Hungarian history, published in the United States of America, in
the English language. Some others are translated from Hungarian (please
excuse our accent...). There were a lot of anticipated, but unexpectedly
fast changes lately in Central and East-Central Europe and the Balkans.
Researchers, historians, diplomats, professors were scrambling for
information on historical and artificially created states of the area.
Unfortunately, there were very few - fair and objective - books available on
Hungary. To help to fill the sudden demand, we have distributed thousands of
books on the subject among university, research, media and government
libraries. (Ed note: Please see the Free Books link, some of which are CD
Rom versions of Hungarian History. There's a pretty good list of books to be
had free for researchers: I suggest that you pool your resources so as to
not overwhelm them with requests).

Hungarian History
(Site Excerpt) Hungary has long been a citadel of Western thought in Central
Europe. Relatives of the Hungarians, the Huns, Avars, and Szekleys settled
the Carpathian basin as early as the 4th century. Magyar tribes established
the Hungarian State in the Carpathian Basin in 896. Long after the fiered
Attila, "The Scourge of God," ravaged Europe, the Magyar Chieftan Vajk
converted to Christianity, established Hungary as a Christian power, and
received his crown from the Pope, thus becoming Istv?n Kir?ly (King
Stephen), Hungary's first Christian King in the year 1000. He was later
canonized as St. Stephen of Hungary.

World Wide Web Virtual Library: History: Hungary
More than 100 links relating to Historical Hungary from it's earliest
history on towards modern day. Includes some Jewish Hungarian History.'s History of Painting and Sculpture in Hungary (beware wrapped URL's. Copy the entire
link address adn paste it into your browser window).
(Site excerpt) On the following pages the concise history of painting and
sculpture in Hungary can be found. From the time-frame extending from the
establishing of the Hungarian state in the 11th century to the mid 20th
century, you can select a period from the menu located at the left side of
the screen. Using the icons always present at the top of the screen you can
return anytime to the virtual collection.

The Magyars of Hungary
(Site Excerpt) The Hungarians, unlike their Slavic neighbours, speak a
language of the group known as Finno-Ugric. Despite claims of Hunnish
descent, it is thought that they came from the Ural Mountains in Russia and
migrated east, then south in contact with Turks and Iranians, taking on a
nomadic, herding lifestyle. The word Hungary is thought to have come from On
Ogur ("ten arrows"), the name of a Magyar tribal confederation.

The seven Magyar tribes gradually evolved over four centuries into a kingdom
known as Hungary, led by Stephen I and his successors. Parts of Transylvania
were conquered and colonized in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. In 1090
Laszlo I occupied Slavonia, and in 1103 Kalman I named himself king of
Croatia, though Croatia actually remained an "associate" kingdom
administered by a civil governor. Hungary gradually evolved into a feudal
economy, and by the reign of Bela III beginning in 1173, the country was a
major power in southeastern Europe.

Medieval History
Note that though this site has no official title except the above (that I
can find), I does contains some good historical information. (Site Excerpt)
The Wallachian ruler Mircea eel Batran (1386-1418) strengthened and enlarged
the fortress, coined money in the Severin Fortress and favoured both
Romanian and foreign tradesmen (who were) going through the Schela Cladovei
Customs. The sub dual of the Severin Fortress by the Turks and its final
destroying opened the way to the Turks towards Central Europe. In 1541, half
of Hungary's surface was turned into a Turkish province.

The Fall of the Medieval Kingdom of Hunagary (a bibliography)

Magyar Madneess Timeline (an event based on an historical timeline)
Each activity at this Magyar-themed event is based upon an instance in
Hungarian History. Brought to you by: The Baronial Colleges of Nordleigh

The History of Hungary
(Site Excerpt) While dates are uncertain, evidence suggests Celts dominated
part of the region until their ouster by the Romans in the first century AD,
who made the land the imperial province of Pannonia. The Romans were
expelled by the Goths in the fourth century, and later Attila the Hun
dominated and terrorized the area. Avars, Bulgars, and Germans all staked
claims to various territories within the Basin. By the late ninth century,
the occupying Moravian or Slavic settlements were vanquished when Magyar
cavalrymen, led by their chieftain ?rp?d, swept through the region. After
?rp?d's death in 907, the Magyars, who made marauding forays throughout
central Europe, were defeated by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I in 955. Duke Geza
found it politically expedient to convert to Christianity in 975, and his
son Stephen, founder of the ?rpad Dynasty, was made king by Pope Sylvester
II around 1000 AD.

The Early History of the Hungarian Ethnic Designations by Fred Hamori
(Site Excerpt) The Hungarian nation throughout it's known history has at
least three distinct names, not counting the other six tribal names which
are also traceable back into antiquity. ( the other tribal names are Kari,
Kasi, Kurt-Gyarmat, Tarjan/Tarxan, Jenu, Nyek) These three names whose roots
are to be discussed refered more to the leading nation, which also could
have had its unique independent origin. Starting with the oldest references
and advancing to the newest are the following at different times and
different languages; (1) Sabar-toi Asfali, Subar, Sabir, Savar, Sawardiya ,
Land of 4 rivers, source of 4 great rivers, Urartu and the Caucasus. (2)
Mas-ar, Masgar, Mazar, Madjar, Magor, Magar, Magyar, Makar.  Royal Apostolic
rule & land of 4 rivers. (3) Onogur, Hunugur, Ugor, Ungar, Hungar, Uhor,
Venger.  The 10 arrows confederation. "Onogur "

Museums on Hungary on the WEB, in order of counties

Art on Egg (Egg art including a great many Payzanki styles)
To see examples of the museum's display, click English along the top menu,
then click Views, in small type, to the top right.

History of Romaina
This site is mentioned because of the enormous role Huingary played in
Romania's history. Many people still claim that Transylvania is actually
Hungarian in nature, not Romanian.

Magyar SCA Listserve
MAGYAR      Medieval Hungary and things Hungarian in SCA.
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History of Transylvania
(Site Excerpt, excuse the cheesy graphics) Hungarians conquered Transylvania
in 896 AD. Soon after, German settlers, later called Transylvanian Saxons,
were invited in to help defend the country against frequent incursions from
the East. For several centuries the state administration was based on the
alliance of the following three nations: the Hungarian nobles, the Szeklers,
and the free peasants and tradesmen of the autonomous Saxon territories.
Romanians in Transylvanian territory were first mentioned in historical
documents from the 13th century, where they were referred to as Vlachs.

Important Dates in Hungarian History
(Site Excerpt) 5th century The Hungarian tribes left the area of the Urals.
They passed along the Volga and the Caspian Sea. After several hundred years
of wandering, they reached the Carpathian Basin.
896 Under the leadership of Arpad, the Hungarian tribes settled in the
Carpathian Basin. They drove out part of the residents and absorbed the
other part.


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