Hello all. This week's Links list is centered on Vikings. As usual, please
feel free to forward this list wherever it will find a ready audience, and
use it to update your own Links lists.

Enjoy

Aoife

The Wonderful World of Viking Art
http://www.vikingart.com/VikingArt.htm
See pictures and read articles about Viking art.

Viking Runes and Runestones
http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/CITE/v_runes.htm
(Site Excerpt) Like wrestling, swimming and fighting, writing was considered
a special skill among the Vikings. The alphabet they used was invented by
their ancient Scandinavian ancestors. According to legend, Odin, chief of
the Norse gods, speared himself to a tree in an attempt to receive knowledge
and learn the mysteries of the runes. He then passed this knowledge to his
people.

Regia Anglorum: Viking Crafts: Leatherwork
http://www.regia.org/leatwork.htm
(Site Excerpt) Unless you have very strong political views, just about
everyone today still has some items made using leather. Over the ages it has
been used for boots, clothing, shields, and armour, tents, bottles buckets
and fire hoses. In the Saxon period it was even more widespread as they did
not have any of the other flexible materials we have today, but despite
these innovations, it is still in great demand for good shoes, saddles and
harnesses, suitcases, handbags, wallets, upholstery and many other
high-quality products. The characteristics of leather were just as important
then as they are today; flexibility, strength and durability.

Elementary Themes: Viking Ships
http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/CITE/vikingships.htm#Construction
(Site Excerpt) Vikings have become famous principally thanks to the long
trips they made in their ingeniously constructed ships in which they visited
four continents. Along Western European coasts and rivers they traveled to
the Mediterranean Sea. Via Russian rivers they traveled to the Black Sea and
Constantinople and to the Caspian Sea and further to Baghdad in Asia. They
resided in Shetland and Orkney and crossed the Atlantic Sea to Iceland,
Greenland and Canada, and maybe also made it as far south as along the
present-day coast of the United States.

Making a Longbow by Simon C B Day
http://www.cix.co.uk/~courtney01/combrogi/longbow.htm
(Site Excerpt) Making a longbow is a fun and rewarding experience. Standing
in amongst a row of archers with a fine bow, gives you an amazing feeling of
"Aha - I made this". The following instructions are based on experienced
gained during a Living History training weekend when I made a bow under the
expert tuition of Colin Levick.(Note, lengthy instructions omitted in this
blurb).

Hnefltafl by Simon C B Day
http://www.cix.co.uk/~courtney01/combrogi/hnefl.htm
(Site Excerpt) One of the games enjoyed by people since the Viking age is
Hnefatafl. The game is split into two sides, with one side acting the
defender (white) and one side acting as the attacker (black). The objective
of white is to let the king piece escape the field, while the objective for
black is to stop them.

 The Danelaw Village
Living history at York
http://www.cix.co.uk/~courtney01/combrogi/village.htm
(Site Excerpt) Danelaw Village is a recreated Dark Age village situated at
the Yorkshire Farming Museum at Murton, York. Built during the past 9 years,
in the main by volunteers, the village now consists of about twenty
buildings ranging from dwellings to workshops.

Wool and stuff: Anglo-Saxon and Viking Cloth
http://mahan.wonkwang.ac.kr/link/med/craft/textile/textile1.htm
(Site Excerpt) A question that is often asked of Regia members by members of
the public is ``They wouldn't have had cloth that fine and soft would
they?''. Well I have recently been doing a project on Anglo-Scandinavian
cloth with particular reference to finds from York at the Archaeological
Resource Centre there. This project has involved researching textiles not
only from York but also from other Viking Age sites to enable me to draw
parallels. I hope that the information I have accumulated will be of use to
Regia members and others interested in this period.

Dark Age Crafts
http://www.birkana.org.uk/crafts2.htm
A comprehensive list of crafts for Viking era crafters. Includes: Spinning,
dyeing, weaving, tablet weaving, embroidery, shoe making, chain maille, wood
carving and turning, cooking leatherwork and casting.

Nathan's Sources
http://www1.enloe.wake.k12.nc.us/enloe/CandC/showme/bibliography.html
Bibliography to an unknown work that is never the less quite thorough. Many
Viking and Viking-craft related sources cited.

Midnight Wolf's Viking, Scottish and Celtic Links
http://www1.enloe.wake.k12.nc.us/enloe/CandC/showme/bibliography.html
A comprehensive set of links.

The Society of the Vikings based upon their religion
http://www.intercollege.se/viking/mythology2/main.html
(Site Excerpt) One of the first gods we know something about in Sweden was
called Nerthus. She appeared at a time when the climate changed in Sweden.
The winters became longer and cooler and the people were afraid. They
started to obey the sun and different gods who represented the sun. The god
who became most popular was Nerthus, the goddess of the sun and fertility.
The people worshiped Nerthus for a long time, but when they started to
settle down and felt safer the Nerthus worship changed to the religion of
the Asagods and the Vanes.

American Museum of Natural History: Viking Symposium, The Viking Saga,
Viking Village Re-enactment
http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/vikings/programs.html
(Site Excerpt) The world of the Vikings has disappeared long ago, but their
artistry and traditions live on in the study and reenactment of all aspects
of Viking life. To celebrate these traditions and the opening of the
exhibition, Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga, we invite you to an authentic
reenactment of a Viking Marketplace. Experience Viking life through
workshops in stone cutting, woodcarving, weaving, and other crafts.
Participate in storytelling, music, dances, children's games, and all things
Viking. (Classes offered in 2002).



The Viking Ships
http://viking.no/e/travels/evikingships.htm
(Site Excerpt) How they sailed
 You not only need a good ship to be able to travel far. You also have to
know how to navigate to find your way to your destination. The Vikings set
sail in the morning when the wind and tide was right. All day they sailed
along the coast. At nightfall they landed at some beach, put up tents, had a
cooked meal and went to sleep.
Next day they set sail when the.... and so on, until they reached their
destination. This was the normal Viking sailing procedure. Some times,
however, the Vikings sailed for days across open sea and some times, sailing
along rivers, they had to take their ships ashore and haul them across land
to pass waterfalls or take the ships from one river to another.

Digital Norseman Viking Ships and Replicas
http://www.digitalnorseman.com/vships/shpintro.html
(Site Excerpt) We know of some replicas built in the 19th century, but the
majority have been built from about the 1950's and onwards. Denmark has
probably built more replicas than anyone else, but the competition is
increasing. Norway, Sweden and the US both have a number of ships sailing
today and there are many more projects underway around the world, some as
far away as Australia.

Viking Ship Plans
http://vikingships.tripod.com/
(Site Excerpt) (Photo)Captain Magnus Andersen's Viking of 1893: a replica of
the Gokstad ship from Norway
A commercial site for plan sales, but interesting none the less. Loads
slowly.

PBS: Nordic Sagas: Viking Ships
http://www.pbs.org/safarchive/4_class/44_guides/guide_803/4483_viking.html
(Site Excerpt) For nearly three centuries, Vikings sailed the rough oceans
in their sleek, streamlined ships, traveling far from Scandinavia to distant
lands where they built settlements. How they sailed to North America and
other parts of the world has long been a mystery, but ships buried in the
mud of Danish fjords are providing some answers. Frontiers joins
archaeologists reconstructing ships that will sail on the same waters
traveled by Viking ancestors so long ago. (Site Includes: Curriculum Links,
Viking Ship Design, Activity: A Balance of Forces, Extensions, Why the Right
Side of a Boat Is Called the Starboard Side)


The Briese-Bane Viking Ships Information Center
http://homepage.powerup.com.au/~rhayes/vikingb/vikshipl.htm
(Site Excerpt) There were "Swedish" and "Danish/Norwegian" Vikings. The
Danish and Norwegian mostly sailed westwards, to Western Europe and England
and Ireland and the associated islands. The Swedish mostly went eastwards,
often dragging the boat overland, into modern-day Russia and further on to
Byzantium and the Caliphate. The Normans are perhaps the best known
descendents of the Vikings, and their descendents conquered England in 1066.
There are strong links to the Irish and the Anglo-Saxons as well as other
areas such as Iceland and Greenland. There is strong evidence that the
Vikings reached the shores of the USA.



York Bridgemasters' Accounts
http://www.yorkarchaeology.co.uk/bridgemasters/

Fascinating glimpse of Viking elite's lifestyle
http://cphpost.periskop.dk/default.asp?id=27289

The Last Viking
http://www.spirasolaris.ca/1aintro.html

Viking Navigation and Astronomy
http://www.scivis.com/AC/hist/viking.html
(Site Excerpt) The Vikings were certainly more daring as seamen than others
of their era. The magnetic compass was not invented until the 12th century;
before then, most sailors would travel no more than three days out of sight
of land. Small errors in judging direction, and the uncertainties of ocean
currents, would accumulate over three days sailing to as much as twenty
miles of navigation error.

Fröjel Gotlandica Viking Re-Enactment Society
http://www.frojel.com/_index.html
(Site Excerpt)  Few periods in history stimulate the imagination as much as
the Viking era. Scandinavia, the British Isles, The Low Countries, France,
Russia, Spain, Italy, Greece, all the Mediterranean, the Black sea, Africa
and even America were normal destinations for Viking longships.

Vikings and Saxons ( a retailer of actual artifacts)
http://www.vikingsandsaxons.com/
(Site Excerpt) ...These were the Dark Ages, a period that fills us with
romantic images, and a sense of mystery: the time of Arthurian legends, the
Sutton Hoo burial and other treasure hoards, Viking longships and raiders,
barrows like Beowulf's holding their secrets for finders centuries from now.
If you have an interest in English history and don't enjoy looking at these
objects, you may not have a pulse.

The World of the Viking
http://www.pastforward.co.uk/vikings/index.html
A site with links to many other sites and pages on the subject of Vikings.

Viking Heritage Magazine
http://viking.hgo.se/
(Site Excerpt) Viking Heritage Magazine will keep you updated about what is
happening in the Viking world, both 1000 years ago and today! It is the
ultimate forum for all interested in Vikings and the Viking Age!

National Museum of Denmark, York Archaeological Trust
The World of the Vikings  (A CD ROM for sale)
http://www.pastfwrd.demon.co.uk/vikings/

THE BATTLE OF STAMFORD BRIDGE
http://www.pastforward.co.uk/vikings/stamford.html
(Site Excerpt) Few people in England have heard of the Battle of Stamford
Bridge, even though it was the last Viking battle on English soil and ended
the Viking era of English history. The reason is that the Battle of Stamford
Bridge is overshadowed in English history by the Battle of Hastings which
occurred just three weeks later. The Battle of Hastings in 1066 is the one
historical event that everyone in England knows.

Norse Mythology FAQ
http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~cherryne/mythology.html
(Site Excerpt) The Norse mythological system as we currently have it comes
down to us mainly from the Icelandic Eddas and sagas which were written down
a few centuries after the christianization of the north. There has been much
research trying to discern the true ancient religion as practiced by the
people of the Scandinavian countries as opposed to the representation we are
given in the written sources.

Museums in Denmark
http://www.kulturnet.dk/en/kulturguide.html

Viking Ship Museum
http://www.mac-roskilde.dk/
(Site Excerpt) The Viking Ship Museum houses the five original Viking ships
excavated in Roskilde Fjord near Skuldelev. The ships are exhibited and
their story is told with models, posters, and film in the Exhibition Hall,
where changing special exhibitions also can be found`.

Borg Viking Museum
http://home.online.no/~perkaa/what/vestvaag/lofotr.html
(Site Excerpt) Borg Viking Museum is the largest investment of its kind ever
made in the Nortern part of Norway. The museum is a reconstruction of a
Viking cheiftain's homestead. If you come here you get the oppertunity to
walk around in an area which brings you more than a thousand years back in
time.

Dark Ages (Viking) Forum
http://darkage.eliteboards.com/


The greatest good you can do for another is not just share your riches, but
to reveal to him, his own.---Benjamin Disraeli

If you lend someone $20 and never see that person again, it was probably
worth it.

SUMMER set lip to earth's bosom bare,
And left the flush'd print in a poppy there;
Like a yawn of fire from the grass it came,
And the fanning wind puff'd it to flapping flame.  ----Francis Thompson, The
Poppy

 "My friends are my estate."---- Emily Dickinson

"I have undertaken  a labor,  a labor  out of  love  for
the world, and to comfort noble hearts..."----GOTTFRIED VON STRASSBURG